Table of Contents
What is Orbit?
There are various models approved to explain the atomic structure and its functioning. Dalton and Rutherford tried to explain the structure of an atom, but their theories weren’t successful. Today, Bohr’s model of an atom is the most widely accepted. In an atom, a path of a regular shape that electrons follow to revolve around the atom’s nucleus is known as an Orbit. This revolution of electrons around the nucleus is possible due to the nuclear force of attraction towards the nucleus.
An Orbit is also known as a shell. The principal quantum number represents it. An Orbit number corresponds to the amount of energy the electron present in it shall have. The higher the Orbit number, the lower the energy needed for the electron to leave the orbit. The concept of the orbit is based on Bohr’s Atomic Model.
It is also possible for an electron to move from one orbit to another. Electrons do this by either absorbing or releasing a particular amount of energy. Suppose an electron comes from a higher to a lower energy state. It has to release a particular amount of energy; if an electron enters from a lower to a higher energy level, it absorbs energy.
What is Orbital?
In another model that attempts to explain the structure of an atom, it is concluded that electrons don’t revolve in fixed orbits. Instead, there are probabilities of finding an electron in spaces around the nucleus. Atomic orbitals are 3-dimensional spaces surrounding the nucleus where there is a maximum possibility of finding an electron.
Molecular orbitals are composed of atomic orbitals. In elementary quantum physics, orbitals have been designated as s, p, d, and f subshells. Orbitals are of various shapes and sizes, which the square of the wave function can determine.
The concept of an orbital is based on Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, which states that an electron’s position in an atom is never definite but uncertain.
Difference Between Orbit and Orbital
An electron’s fixed, well-defined path around the nucleus is known as an Orbit. The spaces around the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found are known as orbitals.
Orbits are either circular or elliptical. Orbits can be of various shapes like dumbbells, spherical and double dumbbells. Orbits are non-directional, whereas orbitals are directional.
The maximum number of electrons in orbit is 2n2, where n is the orbit number.
An orbital cannot possess more than two electrons.
Orbits are non-directional, whereas orbitals are directional. Orbits are represented by alphabets K, L, M, and N. Orbitals are represented by alphabets s, p, d, and f.
Orbits denote the motion of an electron in one plane. Orbitals denote the motion of electrons in all three planes.
Comparison Between Orbit and Orbital
|Parameters of Comparison||Orbit||Orbital|
|Definition||An electron’s fixed, well-defined path around the nucleus is known as an Orbit.||The areas around the nucleus where electrons are most likely found are known as orbitals.|
|Shapes||Orbits are either circular or elliptical.||Orbits can be of various shapes like dumbbells, spherical and double dumbbells.|
|Nature||Orbits are non-directional.||Orbitals are directional.|
|Representation||Orbits are represented by alphabets K, L, M, and N.||Orbitals are represented by alphabets s, p, d, and f.|
|Plane of motion of an electron||Orbits denote the motion of an electron in one plane.||Orbitals denote the motion of electrons in all three planes.|