Table of Contents
What are Monocots
Monocots are flowering plants that have seeds with a single (mono-) embryonic leaf known as a cotyledon. Examples of monocotyledonous plants are wheat, palms and grasses.
When a monocot seed germinates, it produces one seed leaf. This seed leaf is the plant’s first source of nutrients. When monocot plants have grown sufficiently to produce new leaves, the leaves have large veins that run parallel to each other.
Grasses are examples of plants that exhibit this. These leaves provide energy to the plant through the process of photosynthesis. The vascular system that runs through the stem of a monocot is not well organized. Monocot flowers produce pollen grains with only one pore or furrow.
There are approximately 60,000 species of monocots. A monocot’s roots are incapable of secondary thickening because they lack a vascular cambium, which is where secondary xylem and phloem, or vascular tissue, development, takes place.
Monocot roots are essentially similar to eudicot roots in terms of other structural characteristics. Many eudicots have a strong root system that includes a taproot or multiple strong roots that eventually grow from the embryonic root.
What are Dicots?
Dicotyledons, also known as “dicots” are a major class of flowering plants known as angiosperms. Unlike their relatives in this class, they usually have two cotyledons or embryonic leaves, in their seeds, and their flowers typically have parts that are arranged in groups of four or five, or variations thereof.
Dicot, which comprises about 175,000 species, is the larger of the two angiosperm groups. Examples of dicot include mango, roses, geraniums etc.
The following are additional distinguishing characteristics in addition to the number of cotyledons:
- Dicots have tetramerous or pentamerous numbers of flower parts (in multiples of four or five)
- The number of pores in pollen; dicots have three arrangements for their vascular bundles in the stem; these arrangements are circular in shape in dicots;
- They usually have secondary growth on their stems, and their roots have a taproot system. They also have reticulate venation on their leaves.
Difference Between Monocots and Dicots
- The seed of monocots have only one cotyledon. The seed in dicots have two cotyledons.
- Leaves run parallel to each other in monocots. Leaves are dorsiventral in dicotyledon.
- Monocotyledon stems have separated vascular bundles throughout. Dicotyledon stems have vascular bundles arranged in a ring-like pattern.
- Monocots have numerous branches and fibrous roots. Dicots are made up of long, thick tap roots.
- In monocots, flower parts are present in multiples of three. In dicots, the flower parts are present in multiples of either four or five.
- The pollen tube in monocots contain single pore. The pollen tubes in dicots contain three or more pore.
- Monocots are herbaceous. Dicots are both woody as well as herbaceous.
- Examples of monocots include Sugarcane, banana tree, palm, ginger, wheat. Examples of dicots include Mint,tomato, beans, lentils, pea lettuce, pea and peanuts.
Comparison Between Monocots and Dicot
|Parameter of Comparison||Monocot||Dicot|
|Cotyledons||The seed of monocots have only one cotyledon.||The seed in dicots have two cotyledons.|
|Leaves||Leaves run parallel to each other||Leaves are dorsiventral|
|Stem||Monocotyledon stems have separated vascular bundles throughout.||Dicotyledon stems have vascular bundles arranged in a ring-like pattern.|
|Root||Monocots have numerous branches and fibrous roots.||Dicots are made up of long, thick tap roots.|
|Flower parts||Flower parts are present in multiples of three.||The flower parts are present in multiples of either four or five.|
|Pollen tube||The pollen tube contains single pore||The pollen tubes contain three or more pore|
|Woody/Herbaceous||Monocots are herbaceous.||Dicots are both woody as well as herbaceous.|
|Examples||Examples of monocots include Sugarcane, banana tree,||Examples of dicots include Mint, tomato, etc.|